Bee Byte: Can you #WildID a Bee?

On Twitter, nature-lovers will send scientists photos of an animal asking for a #WildID – or species identification. But can you #WildID a bee?

The answer: sometimes yes (but usually no).

Often bees of the same genera will look very similar (for example these two different species of male Agapostemon):

Agapostemon splendens (public domain image, Lexi Roberts as part of 'Insects Unlocked')
Agapostemon splendens (public domain image, Lexi Roberts as part of ‘Insects Unlocked’)
Agapostemon angelicus (public domain image, Lexi Roberts as part of 'Insects Unlocked')
Agapostemon angelicus (public domain image, Lexi Roberts as part of Insects Unlocked’)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

And sometimes, two bees of the same species will look very different (like the abdominal coloration of these two female Augochloropsis metallica):

Augochloropsis metallica (public domain image, Lexi Roberts as part of 'Insects Unlocked')
Augochloropsis metallica (public domain image, Lexi Roberts as part of ‘Insects Unlocked’)
Augochloropsis metallica (public domain image, Lexi Roberts as part of 'Insects Unlocked')
Augochloropsis metallica (public domain image, Lexi Roberts as part of ‘Insects Unlocked’)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This makes telling a bee’s species from a photo very difficult; sometimes the features an entomologist must look at to ID a species are hidden under hairs, or even involve dissecting the bee.

However, sometimes a photo with location data can tell us everything we need to know to #WildID – some species have very distinctive features (especially when we know where the photo was taken, and thus what species are in that range). For example the triangle of black on the thorax of Bombus franklini (featured here), combined with information about the bee’s range, can be used to ID B. franklini with relative certainty. Sometimes even the time or flower a bee was spotted on can help #IDthatBee – if it is an early dawn forager, or a pollen-specialist that only visits a specific species.

Don’t be afraid to #WildID your next bee photo – even if the experts can’t get the species, often the next best thing (genera) can be ascertained with a glance. Check out Bees in Your Backyard to try your hand at IDing to genera, yourself!

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Bee Byte: Bombus franklini

BeeByteLogo

 

Endangered. Social. Narrow Range.

 

Map made via DiscoverLife; modified to most closely resemble Williams, Thorp, Richardson, and Colla (2014)
Map made via DiscoverLife; modified to most closely resemble Williams, Thorp, Richardson, and Colla (2014)Status: Critically Endangered, last recorded by Robbin Thorp in 2006

Status: Critically Endangered, last recorded in 2006 by Dr. Robbin Thorp

Name: Franklin Bumble bee

Family: Apidae (with: honey bees, carpenter bees)

States: Oregon and California

B. franklini has experienced a sharp decline since 1998, and has not been spotted in the wild for over a decade, earning itself a spot on the critically endangered species list and a spot as the Bee Bytes mascot. It also has one of the most narrow distributions for a bumble bee in the world.

The yellow half of the thorax (closer to the head) with an inverse U shape in black can be used to differentiate it from the similar looking B. occidentalis. 

Photo credited to Dr. Robbin Thorp
Photo credited to Dr. Robbin Thorp

Like other bumble bees, B. franklini are social; they live in colonies with a queen, who reproduces, and her daughters, who gather nectar and pollen. The colony does not overwinter. B. franklini are generalists, meaning they can use a variety of flowers for food; like all bumble bees, they are buzz pollinators, vibrating at a high frequency to dislodge pollen from the flowers’ anthers.

A potential cause of B. franklini decline is the fungal pathogen Nosema bombi, which has been found with increasing prevalence on museum specimen from declining populations. It is possible exotic strains were introduced from Europe, due to the American agricultural industry’s use of bumble bees reared in Europe to pollinate crops.

These bees are ground-nesters, thought to live in abandoned rodent burrows in grassy meadows. A paucity of research on B. franklini means little is known about the species, making conservation efforts more difficult.

More resources on the species and its decline:

NPR: The Bumblebee Hunter

ICUN Redlist Entry

Test of the invasive pathogen hypothesis of bumble bee decline in North America

Evidence for decline in eastern North American bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), with special focus on Bombus affinis Cresson

Bumblebees of North America: An Identification Guide by Paul Williams, Robbin Thorp, Leif Richardson, Sheila Colla (2014; Princeton University Press).

 

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Introducing “Bee Bytes”!

BeeByteLogoWelcome to Bee Bytes, a #scicomm project to introduce bees to the public!

What is Bee Bytes?

Bee Bytes will be a weekly to biweekly series on my blog, where I write “bite-sized” posts about an invasive or native bee species in the United States, describing its distribution, taxonomic relationship, and a few fun facts in brief! Each post will be 256 words or less – the number of unique characters you can represent with just one ‘byte’ (and exactly as long as this post). The end will have extra resources, in case you want to look for more about your favorite bees.

I don’t get it, why bytes?

A byte is used to encode a single text-character in a computer; my ‘bee bytes’ will be used to encode a single bee in your memory!

Where can I find these bytes?

For now, get your Bee Bytes fix here on my blog; in the future, I’m hoping to make a ‘trading card style’ website where you can search the deck for your favorite bees. That can be an after-quals project.

How long will you be doing Bee Bytes?

With 4000+ species in the United States, I can write for the next 77 years or so before I cover every species we’ve got! By that time, we’ll have so much new information I might even have to start over!

4000 species? Aren’t you byte-ing off more than you can chew?

Listen, bugger – you can buzz right off with that negativity.

Sorry.

Why?

Check out this link for the impetus behind ‘Bee Bytes’.

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